Koi Environment Needs - Considerations When Designing Your Koi Pond and Filtration System

Ornamental Koi are mostly bred in Japan and shipped to rest of the world. Many years of selective breeding had led to development of various colorful varieties of Koi but all will need the same water requirements. They are relatively hardy fish and can tolerate poor water conditions but not for prolonged periods. If you are serious about Koi keeping, then continual good water quality is must to maintain your Koi at their peak condition. A pond for keeping Koi has more stringent requirements compared to a normal garden pond.

Pond Size

Although most Koi sold are young Koi and averages from 20 cm (yearlings) to about 50 cm, Koi can grow to as large as 1 meter in length. Size and bulk is one criterion when Koi are judged at Koi shows. Koi need space to thrive and some Koi experts have claimed that growth rate is proportional to pond size and volume of water per Koi.

Just like in aquarium fish keeping, a larger volume of water or pond would also provides more stability in the water condition. Often, this is limited by available space for your pond and usually not by cost. I am not sure about other countries, but in Singapore, my pond builder has told me that I can have a slightly larger (or smaller) pond for the same price (like buying a shirt!). If you are planning to keep 9 Koi (each about 70 cm long), the pond dimensions should be at least that of a king-size bed. Believe me, once you are bitten by the Koi-keeping bug, you would not want to stop at 9! Hence, you should go for the largest pond that you can fit into the available space in your garden or house.

Oxygen level

Koi needs oxygen and so does the bacteria in the biological filter. Dissolved oxygen level of 8 mg/liter in water temperature of about 25 deg C is almost ideal since it is almost at saturation point. I used a water test kit to measure this. Note that plants (including algae) in the water also use oxygen at night. Plants take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen only in the day, during photosynthesis. Some form of aeration in your pond design is a must. Oxygen is absorbed by the water when it comes in contact with air. Any way to increase the interface area between the pond water and air would be good. This can be achieved through use of a waterfall, fountain, venturi pipe water return system or air pumps that create streams of bubbles in your ponds.


There is a need to keep the water cool, especially during summer or if you live in hot, sunny country like Singapore where the daily temperature ranges from 25 deg C at night to 34 deg C in the day. Warm water does not carry oxygen as well as cool water. In any case, some shade would be good for the Koi. I have read about Koi getting sun-burnt from prolong exposure to direct sunlight.

Pond Depth

Pond depth should ideally be at least 1.2 meter or about 4 feet. Pond surface area is usually limited by the space available in our home or garden. A deeper pond would allow for greater pond volume per unit pond surface area. A deeper pond would also help keeps the water cooler in hot, sunny weather. Hence, a deeper pond is good for the Koi growth but one has to be mindful of the proportion of the depth versus size of the pond.

pH level

pH is a measure of the acidic or basic (alkaline) nature of a solution. Normal tap water or fresh water should have pH level of 7. Water with a lower pH level is deemed acidic while alkaline water would have higher pH. Chalk, limestone, coral or seashells dissolved in water will produce higher pH. It is important to maintain the right pH level for the right type of fish. For example, African cichlids which originate from Lake Malawi requires high pH and a rocky environment, while South American tetras and cichlids which originate from the rivers of Amazon require low pH. Low pH or sudden drop in pH level kills Koi and many other fishes. It is generally better to have pond water for Koi at with slightly higher pH (7.4 is ideal. Not more than 8.0). Water test kit can be used to measure pH. Many Koi keepers, myself included, placed coral and seashells in their filtration system to maintain or buffer the water from sudden pH level changes in their Koi ponds.

Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate

Fish produces ammonia as read more a waste product and a good filter system must be provided to remove this ammonia from the water. If a biological filter is used, the bacteria in the filter will convert the ammonia to nitrite and then from nitrite to nitrate. Nitrate is relatively less harmful to fish and Koi than ammonia or nitrite. Ideal levels of ammonia and nitrite should be zero or near zero and this can be achieved using a good biological filter system. Nitrate level should be less than 25 mg/liter. I used a water test kit to measure nitrate and nitrite levels. The only way to reduce nitrate is through partial water changes. Water plants to absorb the nitrate but may not completely remove all nitrates from your pond. Excessive nitrates may lead to algae bloom and turn your water green. Koi needs to eat regularly and eats a lot to maintain their bulk and grow to their fullest potential. This means a lot of waste matter is produced and have to be processed by the filtration system. A rule of thumb is that the size of the filter system should be one-third of your pond size. Specially designed, all-in-one filter system available commercially may be able to achieve the same effect with a reduced size.

Learn how to keep water, then the Koi will keep themselves. Hence, building an adequately sized pond with a good filtration system is the first step towards having good water quality and healthy Koi. Regular water testing and partial water changes are essential too.

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How to Sell The house to some We Invest in Houses Property Investor - Can They Seriously Address My Troubles?

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Eye-Care Expert Tips: Get to be aware of Your Eye Physician

Community misunderstanding of the precise operate of eye Physicians is widespread. Other well being specialists like the nurse can make clear their roles and immediate folks intelligently for proper treatment.

The importance of adequate eye assessment can not be emphasised much too strongly. Too usually, most people locate clients utilizing a pair of Eyeglasses that belong into a relative, or applying one that was purchased in the local variety shop.

The treatment of the attention is undertaken by four groups of eye specialists:

one. The oculist

The oculist, the ophthalmologist, or the ophthalmic medical professional is often a professional medical health care provider that is expert within the therapy of all conditions and diseases of the attention. Due to the fact of coaching and expertise, he will be able to make a far more thorough and total evaluation of the eye for refractive problems together with other modifications.

2. The optician

The optician, not a medical doctor, whose problem is usually to grind, mount, and dispense lenses.

3. The optometrist

The optometrist, who's accredited to look at for refractive problems in the eye by mechanical indicates and to provide suitable corrective lenses, is not a physician, and he doesn't use medicines inside the assessment with the eyes.

four. The ocularist

The ocularist can be a technician who tends to make synthetic eyes along with other prostheses Employed in ophthalmology.

Between these 4 eye experts, the ophthalmologist would be the a single deemed match being named as the ultimate eye medical professional. Ophthalmologists have concluded "health care university" and board with a common education program that sometimes normally takes 3 several years soon after getting medication right in nearly all nations.

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1. Skills and knowledge

An excellent eye health care provider is generally defined Incidentally his techniques and expertise are revealed on his credentials like diploma and license certificates.

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Be wary of individuals accomplishing such duties and responsibilities that only accredited eye doctors are permitted to execute. Consulting them may well only make additional damage than very good.

Certifications denoting handed board examinations reveal good quality and dependable companies. Any files that should serve as evidences of this stuff have to be effectively exhibited inside the office of the eye physician and needs to be noticeably recognized.

two. Adequate exercise and knowledge

Any eye health care provider with satisfactory techniques denotes specialization and knowledge on his preferred industry. more info This goes to point out that a brand new board passer, whether or not He's on the highest listing, continues to be no match for an eye medical professional that has previously obtained 20 years of experience introduced about by regular exercise of his occupation.

Aside from, perfectly-professional eye Medical practitioners could also necessarily mean they have got attended various seminars and additional trainings regarding the most recent ways of vision correction.

3. Most referred

It is usually Protected to refer to a watch health practitioner who has become referred to you by a relative or an in depth Close friend. Their experiences will constantly show you how the attention physician has actually been efficient in finishing up his job.

Because the eye is this sort of a vital Portion of your body, it is crucial to pick only the most beneficial and probably the most effective eye medical professional to complete the protection and proper look after the eye.

How can I Make a choice from Fragrance Lamps and Salt Lamps?

Fragrance lamps and salt lamps are both of those experiencing quite a bit of popularity these days. Both equally have some Excellent Gains but which a single to select? I will try to provide the reader some info to aid them generate a more sensible choice for their respective circumstances.

Fragrance lamps have existed Considering that the mid 1800s, when their Principal use was to aid decrease the poor smells inside the hospitals and morgues. By a catalytic method (a catalyst is really a chemical compound that will increase or decreases the speed of the chemical reaction), lousy scent molecules are decomposed into harmless substances like CO2 and h2o. In additional present day moments fragrance continues to be extra for the Alcoholic beverages-dependent fuel to scent the air simultaneously. It has also been uncovered that after the initial lights in the lamp as many as 85% of microorganisms continue for being removed in the air for roughly thirty hrs.

Fragrance lamps are known by a lot of names-perfume lamps, effusion lamps, catalytic lamps; they will also be acknowledged merely by their model identify-Lampe Berger, Scentier, Bel-Air, and several more. Even so they all work precisely the same. The lamp is stuffed with your preference of gasoline along with the wick is permitted to burn off for approximately 3 minutes, then extinguished. The burner retains this heat and remains Energetic due to catalytic course of action that has begun until finally you change the duvet more than the wick. This provides the person the advantage of a flameless, lower functioning temperature and very low ozone as a byproduct which correctly eliminates malodors and microbes. If aromatics are used they're not burned but emitted gradually and competently in to the air. The disadvantage of such lamps is Excessive caution should be applied when filling them as a result of highly flammable character of alcohol and its vapors. Treatment need to be taken to wipe spills, Possess a leak proof container and superior ventilation. Also within the initial lights from the wick it should not be remaining unattended because the flame can occasionally attain as high as 5-6".

Salt lamps are generally a bit of mined salt which has been hollowed out to produce room website for just a tealight or modest light-weight bulb (five-twenty five watts). The mined salt generally arises from the Himalayas, Russia or central Europe and also the completed lamps vary in colours from salmon-pink to pale orange. By heating these lamps destructive get more info ions are made. Detrimental ions Incorporate with pollutants, creating them significant so which they slide to the bottom and they are unable to be inhaled. This is particularly advantageous for allergy sufferers and asthmatics. Negative ions also aid maximize blood stream towards the brain sharpening focus.

Crystal salt lamps are created from rock salt which has been refined to a better degree. In ancient instances this crystal rock salt was reserved for royalty; the widespread man or woman only experienced regular rock salt although the lamps do the job exactly the same. By lights a candle or maybe a bulb the salt lamp is heated gently; This can be what results in the emission of your adverse ions. The lamps with a little bulb are much better for ionization since far more area location is illuminated for a longer time; electrical safeguards have to be adopted. Naturally In case you are employing a candle salt lamp you will have a small flame and the same old safeguards must be taken. There's no scent specified off with salt lamps because no additional fuel is employed, although the air does manage to "scent" fresher right after use.

In conclusion, both types of lamps support remove odors in the air; fragrance lamps also assist lower the amount of bacteria while in the air. Fragrance lamps can perfume the air although not salt lamps-they make the air appear fresher. Both fragrance lamps and candle salt lamps have an open flame and safeguards have to be taken; nonetheless the flame is blown out on the fragrance lamp just after three minutes. The alcohol-centered fuel and its vapors are hugely flammable; there isn't any gas linked salt lamps australia ebay to burning a salt lamp. The two lamps are wonderful additions to any dwelling or Workplace.

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